Wednesday, 24 October 2012

GRAPHIC DESIGN - MEDIUM FOR THE MASSES, LECTURE NOTES


Graphic Design: A Medium for the Masses – James Beighton

 Areas for consideration with Graphic Design…
origins
relation to fine art
relation to advertising
a tool of capitalism
a political tool
postmodernism
social conscience

Giotto di Bondone – Art, Science and Symbolism
John Everett Millais – Pears Soap Advertisement, 1886. Does adding type to a piece of art, make it a piece of Graphic Design?

William Addison Dwiggins, 1922 – term Graphic Design came around.
Herbet Spencer
Max Bill and Josef Muller-Brockman – Whatever the information transmitted, it must, ethically and culturally, reflect its responsibility to society.
Richard Hollis - Graphic Design is the business of making or choosing marks and arranging them on a surface to convey an idea.
Paul Rand

‘Looking Closer’ – series of books on Graphic Design theory, statements, quotes etc.

Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec – poster designer, artist. Cross overs with fine art, advertising and graphic design. Are they working together, or is it the simple placement of text over art?

A true sense of Graphic Design is starting to be developed:
Alphonse Mucha – before Christ
Charles Rennie Mackintosh, 1986 – Musical Reviews Posters
Koloman Moser, 1902 – Exhibition Posters – Illustration and composition turns more to standard graphic design with structured layout outs.
Pater Behrens, 1910
Saville Lumley, 1915
Alfred Leete, 1915 – Lord Kitchener posters
James Montgomery Flagg – Uncle Sam Posters
Julis Gipkins, 1917
Wassily Kandinsky – Composition VIII, 1923. Art crosses with Graphic Design, Abstraction
El Lissitzky, Beat the Whites with the Red Wedge, 1919 – Poster, Geometric, Abstract Art translated into Graphic Design
F.H. Stingemore, 1931 – London Underground Map – simplified, basic, graphic representation opposed to realistic view.
Simon Patterson, 1992 – The Great Bar, lithograph on paper. Tube map turned into art with celebrity names and locations etc.
Oskar Schlemmer – Bauhaus Logo 1922
Herbert Bayer – German Poster for Kandinsky’s 60th Birthday exhibition
Piet Zwart – Dutch Phone Book, variety of text, colour, imagery.
Herbert Matter – Swiss Tourist Board posters, 1932-34. Have been re worked more recently for companies such as Swatch.
A.M. Cassandre – French Graphic Designer – Newspaper, Train, Travel posters etc. Minimalist with detail.
Tom Purvis, 1937 – LNER Poster
Ludwig Hohlwein – German Nazi Sports Posters, 1934, Degenerate Art Exhibition poster, 1936 – Hitler liked good art, realism, etc, not abstraction
Hans Schleger, 1940s Poster Designer
Jesp Renau – Industrial posters of the war,  Propoganda. Screen Printing. Interesting composition, simplistic text. 1936
Pere Catala I Pic – Let’s Squash Fascism, 1946.
V. Deni and N. Dolgorukuv  - Russian Dictatorship by Stalin
G. Klucis – USSR Posters.
Abram Games – catalogue for ‘exhibition of sciene’, 1951.
Paul Rand – Advertisiment for Jacqueline Cochram. Juxtaposition, layout. IBM Poster and Logo – 1970s
Saul Bass Posters, 1950s
F.H.K. Henrion – ‘Stop Nuclear Suicide’ Posters, 1960 – Nuclear Disarmament (Peace Sign)
Hipgnosis – Band Covers, over worked Art Work, self indulgence. 1960s/70s – hippy era.
Jamie Reid – Sex Pistols, Never Mind the Bollocks.. sleeve design, 1977. Unusual juxtaposition of layout, text and colour for this area, but design became as important as the music. Do it yourself aesthetic.
Peter Saville – Factory Records, Factory Club Night Posters.
Neville Brody – UK. The Face Magazine Covers, 1980s.
David Carson – USA. Editorial Graphic Design etc. ‘Don’t mistake legibility for communication’
Public Image Limited – Vinyl Sleeves/CD Packaging Design
Peter Blake – British Pop Art Designer, Beatles art work designer.
Chumbawamba – ‘Pictures of Starving Children Sell Records’ – GD Making a specific point about something sinister about music. Very to the point, shocking, focused.
Designers Republic – Sheffield based design house. Sleeve Designs in 1990s.
Mark Farrow (Farrow Design) – Packaging, CD Design, Conceptual Graphic Design/Packaging
The Coup – Party Music, 2001, withdrawn CD cover due to political and cultural issues relating to 9/11. The imagery is exactly what happened around a month later during the terrorist attacks in NYC on the Twin Towers.
Steven Heller – Evidence of designer concern is found in he form of well-meaning but woefully masturbatory poster exhibitions and portfolios organized on general humanistic themes such as peace, human rights and the environment” – 1991. Is it communicating to the masses?
Jonathan Barnbrook – Typeface design, ‘Olympukes’ symbols/icons.
Noami Klein - Author of 'No Logo', Very objective and opinionated. 
Oliviero Toscani - Benetton adverts 1990-92. Shock advertising comes into play more - nudity, shock, death, torture, health, religion, sex and homosexuality. Symbolism. Nothing related to Fashion, just to the Brand. 
Saatchi.
Judy Blame - Keep Britain Tidy T-Shirt, 1992. Graphics applied to fashion. 
Adbusters - cynical view on advertising/re working advertisements, for example, Nike Running Poster. Cleverness and self congratulatory. Will it change how we think and view things? 

Advertising and Consumerism.
Making money, corporate brands and companies. Status, social conscience and community are taken into account more with advertising.
Juxtaposition – text and imagery.
Negative Space.

Graphic Design is a young discipline.
Links between Graphic Design and different disciplines such as Fine Art and Advertising are becoming increasingly blurred.
Although born out of consumerist/capitalist interests, Graphic Design is arguably becoming increasingly concerned with social issues. 


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