Tuesday, 19 February 2013

COMMUNICATION IS VIRUS; DRINKING TEA RESEARCH - VARIETIES/HEALTH BENEFITS/FACTS


The United Kingdom Tea Council website has an extensive information on tea, it's background, history, taxes, health, business, etc, as well as tracking the amount of cups of tea drank per day.

BRITAIN ALONE, CONSUMES AROUND 165M CUPS OF TEA A DAY - Tea4Health

Source: flyingcoffee

Brief Background History of Tea:

It is important to gain background knowledge of the topic at hand, in order to fulfil the brief to it's highest potential, and this ensures the group has masses of information, different facts, figures, images, ideas and concepts.

"Tea is often thought of as being a quintessentially British drink, and we have been drinking it for over 350 years. But in fact the history of tea goes much further back.
The story of tea begins in China. According to legend, in 2737 BC, the Chinese emperor Shen Nung was sitting beneath a tree while his servant boiled drinking water, when some leaves from the tree blew into the water. Shen Nung, a renowned herbalist, decided to try the infusion that his servant had accidentally created. The tree was a Camellia sinensis, and the resulting drink was what we now call tea.
Tea was first introduced to Japan, by Japanese Buddhist monks.

Catherine of Braganza - she made tea fashionable in BritainIn the latter half of the sixteenth century there are the first brief mentions of tea as a drink among Europeans. These are mostly from Portuguese who were living in the East as traders and missionaries. But although some of these individuals may have brought back samples of tea to their native country, it was not the Portuguese who were the first to ship back tea as a commercial import. This was done by the Dutch, who in the last years of the sixteenth century began to encroach on Portuguese trading routes in the East. By the turn of the century they had established a trading post on the island of Java, and it was via Java that in 1606 the first consignment of tea was shipped from China to Holland. Tea soon became a fashionable drink among the Dutch, and from there spread to other countries in continental western Europe, but because of its high price it remained a drink for the wealthy.

Since 1600, the British East India Company had a monopoly on importing goods from outside Europe, and it is likely that sailors on these ships brought tea home as gifts. But the first dated reference to tea in this country is from an advert in a London newspaper, Mercurius Politicus, from September 1658. It announced that 'China Drink, called by the Chinese, Tcha, by other Nations Tay alias Tee' was on sale at a coffee house in Sweeting's Rents in the City.

It was the marriage of Charles II to Catherine of Braganza that would prove to be a turning point in the history of tea in Britain. It was her love of the drink that established tea as a fashionable beverage first at court, and then among the wealthy classes as a whole. Capitalising on this, the East India Company began to import tea into Britain, its first order being placed in 1664 - for 100lbs of China tea to be shipped from Java.

A Portuguese princess, and a tea addict.

But as the tea auction declined, an essential element of modern tea-drinking took off - the tea bag. Tea bags were invented in America in the early twentieth century, but sales only really took off in Britain in the 1970s. Nowadays it would be hard for many tea-drinkers to imagine life without them. Such is the British enthusiasm for tea that even after the dismantling of the Empire, British companies continue to play a leading role in the world's tea trade and British brands dominate the world market. With recent scientific research indicating that tea drinking may have direct health benefits, it is assured that for centuries to come there will be a place at the centre of British life for a nice cup of tea."
Source: Tea Council



Facts:

Here are some interesting facts about tea, from The UK Tea Council. As I am not a tea drinker, myself, I was a little shocked at some of the facts below. I am interested into looking at the health benefits though as demonstrated below, as tea could be a potential prevention for cancer.


Source: tea

Early Health Benefits:

"Leaps forward in medical and scientific research mean that we now know that drinking four cups of tea a day may help maintain your health, but such information was not available to tea drinkers 250 years ago."
Source: Tea Council

Health Benefits:

I found that drinking 4 cups of tea a day could maintain your health, and tea could prevent you from having cancer. Below is more detailed information into the health benefits of drinking tea.

"Tea4Health"

"Tea4health is dedicated to bringing you the facts about how tea, the world’s favourite drink, can help you maintain your health as part of a balanced diet and healthy, active lifestyle."
Source: trademarken

Source: Tea_4_Health

Source: Tea_4_Health

Studies from across the globe have shown results that drinking tea can have considerable health benefits for the heart:

- 1,764 women took part in a study in Saudi Arabia which showed tea drinkers are 19% less likely to suffer from cardiovascular disease than those who do not.
- 806 men took part in a 10 year study study in Holland which showed that men who consumed the greatest amount of catechins (flavonoid) were 51% less likely to die of heart disease, compare to those who consume a lower amount.

Statistics from: tea4health

Fluid Facts:

- Drinking 4 cups of tea a day is hydrating
- The water in your cups of tea can be included in your recommended daily allowance
- Normal strength tea does not have a diuretic effect, unless the amount of tea consumed at one point is 250-300mg of caffeine, which works out at 6 cups of tea.
- A typical cup of tea has less than half the level of caffeine of a typical coffee. One cup only contains about 50mg.
- 4 cups with tea provides 21% of your daily calcium requirements
- Tea with no milk or sugar, has no calories. Using semi-skimmed milk adds 13 calories per cup.
- In hot weather, tea refreshes you by raising your body temperature instantly, causing perspiration cooling you down.
- Green or black teas offer the same health benefits, with similar amounts of flavonoids and caffeine.

(facts taken from leaflet shown above published by 'tea4health') 

Teeth:

"Tea is a great natural source of fluoride, which is added to water and toothpaste because it can actually strengthen tooth enamel. Tea can also help to cut down the build up of plaque on your pearly whites and apart from the fluoride in water, the tea plant is in itself a rich source of fluoride since it actually absorbs the compound from the soil via its roots.
Both black and green teas contain fluoride and they appear to help control bacterial growth that can result in dental plaque."


Statistics from: tea4health

4 Cups a Day Provides:
  • approximately 17% of the recommended intake for calcium
  • 5% for zinc
  • 22% for Vitamin B2
  • 5% for folic acid
  • 5% for Vitamins B1 and B6
A cup of tea also contains manganese, which is essential for general physical development, and potassium which helps to maintain your body's fluid balance.




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Tea and Cancer:
Introduction



Cancer is a major cause of morbidity in the UK with approximately 270,000 newly diagnosed cases, and around 150,000 deaths from cancer each year. It is expected that more than one in three people in England will develop cancer at some stage in their lives. The disease is more likely to develop in later life, with around 75% of deaths from cancer being diagnosed in people over the age of 65. However, although there are fewer deaths from cancer in younger people, cancers cause a greater proportion of deaths: 1 in 3 (37%) deaths in adults aged under 65 years are caused by cancer.


Diet and cancer

More and more research is finding that diet plays a crucial role in the prevention of cancer. A joint WHO/ FAO Expert Consultation report has estimated that dietary factors account for approximately 30% of cancers in industrialised countries. There is convincing evidence that being overweight and obese increase the risk of cancer, as well as consuming large amounts of alcohol, aflatoxins, and some forms of salted and fermented fish. Factors which probably increase risk include high dietary intake of preserved meats, salt-preserved foods and salt, and very hot (thermally) drinks and food. Probable protective factors are consumption of fruits and vegetables. After tobacco, overweight and obesity appear to be the most important known avoidable causes of cancer.


Findings from the world's largest investigation into diet and cancer, EPIC (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition), monitoring approximately 500,000 individuals in 10 European countries, have found that

·           High intakes of fibre reduce bowel cancer
·           High intakes of red or processed meats increase bowel cancer
·           Eating lots of fish may reduce bowel cancer
·           Being overweight and obese increase the risk of breast cancer in post-menopausal women
·           Overweight and obesity also increases the risk of cancer of the kidney
·           High intakes of saturated fat increases the risk of breast cancer
·           High levels of fruit and vegetables reduce the risk of dying early from any cause by 20%
·           High intakes of milk and cheese, and high levels of calcium in our diet, are linked to a reduced risk of bowel cancer.

Dietary Recommendations

The World Cancer Research Fund has made the following dietary recommendations:-
-      Increase fruit and vegetable intake - at least 5 portions per day.
-      Consume a high proportion of high fibre foods such as wholemeal bread and other cereals
-      Choose a variety of plant based foods such as cereals, legumes (such as lentils, beans and peas), starchy foods (such as pasta, rice and bread) as well fruit and vegetables
-      Select foods low in fat and salt
-      Drink alcohol in moderation if at all
These dietary changes as well as maintaining a healthy weight and being physically active can help reduce the risk of developing cancer.

The Committee on Medical Aspects of Food and Nutrition policy (COMA) assembled a working party of experts to look at the evidence for the role of nutrition in cancer causation and to develop recommendations for the prevention of a number of common cancers. In addition to the above dietary recommendations they also suggested that red meat and processed meat consumption should not increase, instead choosing white meat and fish as alternatives

The benefits of tea

There is increasing evidence that specific substances found in certain foods can enhance general healthy eating recommendations e.g. phenolic compounds found in plants. Tea is rich in specific phenolic compounds including flavonoids.

Animal and in-vitro studies have provided evidence that the polyphenols found in
tea may have cancer preventative effects. Tea has been shown to inhibit tumorigenesis in many animal models, including those for cancer of the skin, lung, oral cavity, oesophagus, stomach, small intestine, colon, liver, pancreas, bladder, and prostate. Suggested mechanisms of action have been reviewed in a number of papers and include:

-      Antioxidant activity and scavenging free radicals

-      Modulating enzymes implicated in the carcinogenic process

-      Modifying the pathways of signal transduction, thereby positively altering the expression of genes involved in cell proliferation, angiogenesis, and apoptosis, all important stages of cancer progression

-      Antimicrobial actions (association between Helicobacter pylori and gastric cancer)

While the exact mechanisms of action are still unknown, these studies provide possible explanations. However, additional in-vivo studies are required, using tea in amounts that are typically consumed, to further evaluate any potential mechanisms in humans.

 

The evidence for tea and cancer:

A number of epidemiological studies suggest that tea drinking is associated with a decreased risk of cancer. For example, in a Japanese population survey, an overall protection together with a slowdown in increase of cancer incidence was reported with tea drinking. The effects were more pronounced when the consumption rose to over 10 cups of tea a day. However, other epidemiological studies investigating the association between tea consumption and a reduced risk of cancer have been inconclusive:

Stomach Cancer
Some studies have shown an inverse association between green tea drinking and stomach cancer one of which reported that green tea drinkers had a 48% reduced risk of developing stomach cancer and a 51% lower risk of developing chronic gastritis versus non drinkers. However a recent review, conducted in 2005 by Hoshiyama, examined the association between green tea consumption and stomach cancer in both case control and prospective studies. This review concluded that results from the prospective studies (considered to be more reliable than case controls) showed no benefit from drinking green tea on stomach cancer risk. Another review on this subject also concluded that from the current epidemiological evidence, green tea did not have a protective role in the prevention of stomach cancer; however it did suggest that there appears to be a protective effect of green tea on adenomatous polyps and chronic atrophic gastritis formations.

Breast cancer
A number of population studies have now investigated a potential link between tea drinking and protection against breast cancer. A study in a Los Angeles County of tea drinkers showed a significantly reduced risk of breast cancer compared to non-tea drinkers. It was observed that the risk of breast cancer was lowest among those who drank green tea only, intermediate among those who drank both green and black tea, and unchanged among those who drank black tea only.

Results from another study in Japan found that the regular consumption of green tea (more than 3 cups a day) might be protective against recurrence of breast cancer in the early stages. This has been confirmed in a recent meta-analysis that reviewed all observational studies assessing breast cancer incidence and recurrence. Results from this review indicated that green tea may possibly help prevent breast cancer recurrence in early stage (I and II) cancers, however, because of the small studies that have been conducted to date and the lack of any clinical trial evidence, it is difficult to draw any firm conclusions.

However a recent meta-analysis of all epidemiological studies that have examined the effect of both green tea and black tea on breast cancer risk, indicated that there may be a lower risk for green tea consumption, but the results for black tea were conflicting. This is in contrast to a pooled analysis of two prospective studies in Japan that included over 35,000 Japanese women, which found green tea intake was not associated with a lower risk of breast cancer.

Lung Cancer
Flavonoids have also been associated with a reduced risk of lung cancer and one case control study reported a 50% reduction in lung cancer risk when consuming 1 cup of black tea a day. A population-based case-control study of women from the Shanghai Residential Registry found that among non-smoking women, consumption of green tea was associated with a reduced risk of lung cancer, and the risks decreased with increasing consumption of green tea. However, another study that investigated the relationship between catechin intake (a type of flavonoid that is abundant in tea) and lung cancer, found no such association. Other studies investigating the relationship between tea drinking/ flavonoids and lung cancer also reported no association.

Ovarian cancer
A case control study in China during 1990-2000 found that increasing the frequency of tea drinking, especially green tea, can help reduce the risk of ovarian cancer.

A more recent study, conducted by researchers at the National Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden, examined the association between tea consumption and risk of ovarian cancer in 61,057 women, aged 40 to 76 years, who were participants in the population-based Swedish Mammography Cohort. During 15 years of follow up a 46% lower risk of ovarian cancer was found in women who drank two or more cups of tea per day compared with non tea drinkers Each additional cup of tea was associated with an 18% decreased risk of ovarian cancer.

Prostate Cancer
It has been reported that drinking 6 cups of green tea per day significantly inhibits prostrate cancer development and metastasis. A case-control study, conducted in Southeast China during 2001-2002, found that prostate cancer risk decreased with increasing frequency, duration and quantity of green tea consumed.

Inconsistencies from these population studies maybe as a result of their design e.g. lack of detail about exposure to tea – quantity, strength and variety, insufficient information about the flavonoid contents of foods, variation of flavonoid content amongst food varieties, discrepancies in the collation of dietary information using dietary analysis questionnaires and confounding lifestyle and environmental factors. These details may influence the end results and make them difficult to interpret. Consideration of these factors is required for any future research.

In summary…

Tea and flavonoids have been identified as potential cancer preventatitive components in animal and in vitro studies. However, the inconclusive results reported in population studies maybe as a result of a number of confounding factors making the results difficult to interpret. Although the scientific evidence for tea is growing, it is not yet conclusive and represents a promising area for future research. In the mean time, it is reasonable to conclude that drinking both green and black tea is compatible with healthy eating dietary advice to help reduce the risk of developing cancer, helping to maintain overall health and well-being.

Source: Tea and Cancer article found at tea/nutrition

This is an article from the BBC based on a similar study in Shanghai on the prevention of cancer. It contains facts, quotes and figures which could be useful if we decide to lead the viral campaign with health benefits; news.bbc.co.uk

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Health Benefit Tea's Currently on the Market:

The following tea's and information is taken from twinings website. It has a range of 'health blend' tea's which have benefits to drinking these specific 'tea blends', and are listed below. As you can see above with the prior research, tea has many health benefits which are being pushed and promoted through different varieties and blends.



Traffic, deadlines, rain, bills: Sometimes we need to take a minute and just breathe. We've blended our Calm infusion just for those moments. A special blend of camomile, rooibos, lavender and cocoa beans, its gentle flavour will help you to soothe your troubled mind and ease your worries away. Any time of day or night.
Infused with bright fruit flavours, this range is berry delicious and perfect for those moments when your usual brew won’t hit the spot. Drunk without milk, it’s the refreshing boost your day needs when you feel like something different. And best of all, they are all naturally caffeine free.
Experience the taste of true beauty with this delicate, cleansing blend. We've combined cooling cucumber extract and aloe vera for a lusciously fresh flavour. Nettle leaves, traditionally used for their purifying properties, help you to feel like you're glowing - inside and out. Naturally caffeine free, our blend is so light and refreshing, it's perfect any time of the day.

There's nothing quite like starting the day feeling bright-eyed and bushy-tailed. We've combined the invigorating taste of ginger with ginseng, a root traditionally used in the east to help clear the mind. Smooth, warming rooibos and a light sprinkling of sweet cinnamon bring this blend to life. Naturally caffeine free, this infusion is a superb way to start your day.

It's a blend of nature's most helpful ingredients: spearmint, which has been used to help digestion for centuries; nettle, thought to be cleansing; and Milk Thistle.
Together, their soothing taste will leave you feeling fresh and revitalised.
It's not always easy finding time to look after yourself. But our Cleanse infusion will help you care for your body from the inside out.
Starter, main course, pudding, cheese, biscuits. For those special occasions where dinner goes on all evening, our Digestif infusion will round things off nicely. It's a delicate blend of peppermint leaves and fennel seeds, both of which are reputed to help digestion, with spearmint, dandelion roots and liquorice.  And with a fresh, cooling taste, it will cleanse your palate at the same time.
A little under the weather? The taste of this reviving infusion will soon perk you up. Real sweet blackcurrant pieces blended with earthy echinacea root, traditionally used to help your natural defences. We've also added 15% of your RDA of Vitamin C which contributes to the normal function of the immune system. Plus, there's a tingle of ginger to revive your senses. Naturally caffeine free, our blend is perfect if you're not feeling yourself.

Drift off into a peaceful night's sleep while enjoying this oh-so-calming blend. We've selected the most soothing herbs from nature, traditionally used to rest your mind and body. Camomile, lavender and hops combine with the richness of vanilla, for a little honeyed sweetness. Naturally caffeine free, our blend is perfect just before you slip into bed.

Need a sense of wellbeing and balance in your life? Here’s your little helping hand from nature. Twinings Detox - Purify and Restore - from the Health Benefits Tea range, with only 4 calories a cup.This refreshingly tangy infusion is a wonderful way to help you feel yourself again.

Need a sense of wellbeing and balance in your life? Unwind after any meal with Twinings Digest, a health benefits tea that is deliciously refreshing, and soothing with only 4 calories per cup.

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Green Tea:

Source: shop.twinings

Green Tea has additional benefits, and is currently on the up in the market. Green tea comes from the same plant as regular tea, it is just treated differently to give it it's unusual flavour and taste. 80% of green tea is grown and treated in China. Twining's have launched a new range of green teas:

Source: twinings

Benefits of drinking Green Tea - the British Journal of Nutrition has revealed that drinking more than three cups of green tea a day was found to protect against cell deterioration as we age. DNA tests showed the equivalent of five extra years on the tea drinkers' lives. 

Source: clipper-teas


WHAT'S THE KEY TO GREEN TEA

"The leaves are not given the opportunity to oxidise as with black tea, leaving the teas green in colour.
Oxidation is when the enzymes in the leaf react with the Oxygen in the air, turning the leaves brown, and producing the flavour profile we recognise within black teas.

By gently heating the leaves first, it puts a stop to this chemical reaction, meaning the leaves don't oxidate, and we end up with Green Tea."

"And the news doesn't stop there. Our packaging is completely new, and very different to anything we've created before, allowing us to bring Green Tea into the limelight where it belongs. We commissioned fashion illustrator Tobie Giddio a distinctive ink artist to help bring these designs to life. Giddio has previously Alexander McQueen, Tiffany & Co. and Vogue."
Source: twinings

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Health Campaigns:

Source: sfusion
This campaign shows a website, and handout information for organic green and white tea, showing carbon footprint, health benefits and important information on the product, to advise the buyer as best as possible into buying the correct tea for them and their needs.

Source: copywrite
PG Tips advertisements for tea and health benefits of drinking tea; "wellbeing.. refreshment.. relaxation". The aesthetics, especially colour scheme keep true to the natural and calm vibe of green tea, which is reflected in other campaigns as seen with Twining's Packaging and Bliss Tea's campaign shown above. The minimal use of text also allows the message to be portrayed and received very easily.


Source: visual.ly
This infographic shows the health benefits of tea and coffee, and how they compare.



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