Thursday, 28 November 2013

LECTURE 07: GLOBALISATION, SUSTAINABILITY & THE MEDIA

The global context of practices.

Cultural Imperialism - Video 
'Confronting popular mentalities'

Definitions of Globalisation

Globalisation has at times been desirable and is defined differently in different cultural systems. 


  • Socialist
The process of transformation of the local or regional phenomena into global ones. It can be described as a process by which the people of the world are unified into a single society and function together. This process is a combination of economic technological, sociocultural and political forces/ 
  • Capitalist



In a world where there were many cultures, now there is a mono culture taking over, due to globalisation.


Globalisation

Can be defined as a way of thinking, particularly defined as a spreading of western or american way of life, wiping out other cultures to replace them with a western way of life.

A logical conclusion of globalisation which is the idea of realising one singular culture. This can be viewed negatively or positively. 

As an effect of markets expanding we have also achieved cultural globalisation and dominance. 
'Mcdonaldization' - on a simple line this refers to the dominance of american culture becoming world wide. It also refers to a particular order of transforming the world spreading. The idea of eating fast against health and family meals. The idea of a fragmented culture controlled by american ideals. Such as the Mcjob - not a meaningful process, but a meaningless job where you contribute a small amount to a process which on a larger scale is not making a change or an impact. 

At one time Globalistaion was desirable and exciting -  a chance for equality and a global language. 

Marshall Mcluhan

Quote - 

New technologies are like extensions of our senses. We can experience the effects of our actions all over the world, and sympathise and empathise with others, hopefully creating a harmonious culture. 

Global Village Thesis 

The world instead of being a strange, huge place, will shrink to the size of a village. People attitudes will be more like a small village and people will be convivial. 

This was written before the internet, so may now even have more weight. But the global age has not worked in this way:

Internet Quote

What is actually happening is that other cultures are beginning to see that their cultrals are being destroyed and engulfed by the dominant culture and cultural wars are beginning. 
Globalisation is tearing the world apart in tribal wars.

Jihad Mcworld

Three Problems of Globalisation

Sovereignty

challenges to the idea of the nation-state

Accountability

transnational forces & organisations
who controls them?

Identity

Who are we?
nation, group, community

 
Businesses are more powerful than governments, as being multinational they can act outside of the laws of singular countries. 
Ideally they can then create a vast amount of money which can then be shared, but this is never distributed. 

Manfred B. Steger Quote

Cultural Imperialism

  • If the  global village is run with a certain set of values then it would not be so much an integrated 

Rigging the 'Free Market'

Media Conglomerates operate as oligopolies 

Oligopolies - a giant cluster of businesses all controlled by one main company, and often one figure. 

TimeWarner 
Sky

That one company therefore controls the cultural output of a vast percentage of the worlds media. 
Whichever country you read that magazine in, you are getting an American opinion. 

The world is therefore broken down into four categories for these companies to target.

1. North America
2.Western Europe, Japan & Australia
3.Developing economies and regional producers (India, China, Brazil, Eastern Europe)
4.The rest of the World

This means all information will be targeted mainly as North America, and because of this there is a much wider effect than money making. Perhaps eventually slowly indoctrinating everyone else in the world to think like them. 

US power can be thought of as a new form of Imperialism. 

Big Brother - A western idea which was franchised all over the world. 

The biggest growth industry in india in the past years has been for skin whitening cream. 
This is a world simulated by american ideals and therefore american ideals of beauty. 
They begin to conform to the ideals of their dominant powers. 

Manufacturing Consent - Chomsky & Herman (1998)

Anyone who experiences western culture in any way has been indoctrinated and it is constantly perpetuating the message that this is the right way of life. 

Most of our newspapers are owned by one man, Rupert Murdoch 
He has a particular idea and belief about the world. These papers appear to run stories which are factual, but are actually self serving. 

What is reported is only what is allowed to be reported. 
Advertising will also shape the content. Advertisers will pull funding if the content isn't desirable. 

Global Climate Coalition - 

An Inconvenient Truth - Al Gore (2006)

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