Saturday, 27 September 2014


Below shows the body copy which sits alongside chosen imagery for the book. I have decided to only add body copy to key pieces of imagery which add further context, information or vital facts in relevance to the change. This is due to the images being selected with body copy being highly prominent and important and the photos overall speaking for themselves, provoking thought and conversation by the reader/s.


A 20-year-period spanning from the late 19th century to the early 20th century, boasted The Gibson Girls, whose ideal image was a synthesis of prevailing beauty ideals at the turn of the century, as illustrated by Charles Dana Gibson.

This represented thousands of American girls, demonstrated by models such as Camille Clifford and Evelyn Nesbit.


Sofia Papazoc celebrates the early Flapper Girl image, rejecting traditional Victorian Style. The styles echo a disagreement with the Prohibition movement of the time. 


WWI was in full swing, and women were dressing more conservatively, using layering and drapery, to add shape and movement, whilst enhancing their figures also.


Photography by Edward Steichen for Vogue US.

Traditional Flapper dresses were worn to show off the legs and thighs whilst dancing adding daring and glamorous sexuality at the time.


Photography by Edward Steichen for Vogue US. July. The first ever photographic cover of Vogue Magazine.

Conde Nast began replacing fashion drawings on covers with photo illustrations, which was seen as an innovative move for the time.


Cover by Bruehl-Bourges, Vogue US June. Tennis season arrives, allowing sportswear to be worn, subsequently showing off the female physique more.


Ascot season ran throughout the month of July, and allowed for women to be and feel both sexy, and glamourous. 

Dresses worn were often figure hugging to emphasise ideal, petite, curvaceous figures.


Test Shoot Photograph.

As the flapper season wore off, and the novelty of 
being thin disintegrated, allowing advertisers to jump in, and encourage women to be more voluptuous and to avoid being seen as too thin.


Women were becoming more confident with their bodies, expressing themselves in a new light with the introduction of cosmetics and curves being regarded as an equal beauty.


Rita Hayworth, Vogue US.

Female icons of the time such as Rita Hayworth were being spotted and photographed in two-piece swimwear, in a lightly sexual manner, encouraging others to be confident in themselves also.


Marilyn Monroe.

Monroe was seen as the ideal women by many around the world and adored for her sexy, full-bodied figure.


Marilyn Monroe, Playboy US.

Further to being adored by her film and modelling fans, she had a large male audience and made it as a worldwide sex-symbol, as well as into Playboy.


Margie Harrison, Playboy US.

Margie Harrison also made it as a Playboy model, showcasing a curvy figure, with large breasts, keeping in-line with the sex-object in fashion. 


Audrey Hepburn.

Hepburn remained a solid icon of beauty and of the movie screens, with a naturally slender figure many envied. 


Twiggy, Vogue UK.

First appearing in the 60s, Twiggy remained an icon in terms of her style, and her figure. 

Some claimed she was too thin, and had an eating disorder whilst others have argued that Twiggy was naturally blessed with a perfect body.


Photograph by Helmet Newton

Women continued to smoke to reduce their appetites in order to maintain their slim figures. 


By the late 70s, sexuality was in full-swing, and women were proud to freely show off their assets and sexualise themselves.


Photograph by Guy Bourdin.

Photoshoot promoting Chanel Cosmetics for a Chanel Calendar in association with Pentax.

This particular image advertises their signature red.


Nastassja Kinski and the Serpent, 14 June 1981 for Vogue US. Photographed by Richard Avedon.

This photo shoot reflected natural beauty, and seduction. Nastassja was heavily pregnant reflecting a different type of ideal body image.


Bonnie Berman for Vogue US.

The cover reflected the ideal sporty look, and healthy body image which was both prominent and heavily promoted throughout the 80s.


Elle Macpherson and the Skyscraper. 

Elle was known as the ideal young beauty of the time, recently being noticed as a supermodel.


Cordula Reyer, Vogue UK.

A modern day take on Victorian corsetry in an overtly sexualised manner.


Kate Moss, photography by Corrine Day. Vogue UK.

One of Kate Mossí earlier photographs showcasing her slender, youthful, boyish and androgynous figure which would become heavily sought after for years to come.


Clueless the movie was now a cult film, and lead to groups of girls for the first time shopping, styling, eating, dieting and living together, causing rivalry and competition.

The introduction of the mean girls was apparent allowing for bullying and torment in regards to weight at school and college to begin.


Charlize Theron.

Modern day film stars were taking to modelling for magazines and other publications more and more, adding a further realm of body shapes and sizes to identify as the ideal ëoneí.


Photograph by Mario Testino.

This photograph shows the modern day bikini body women are becoming more accustomed to aspiring to, and considering as the ideal of the 21st century.


This photograph epitomises the Size 0 trend which became an epidemic, causing women to be almost emaciated, with a 22inch waist. That of a 7 year old.


Rosie Huntington-Whiteley

The supermodel Rosie Huntington-Whiteley promoted a super-slim, and almost unrealistic figure in her early photoshoots.


With the amount of people who are suffering with an eating disorder is rising yearly, yet models seem to be getting thinner and thinner over time regardless of statistics and proven medical facts. 

Friday, 26 September 2014


After printing off an A4 draft (not to scale) of PDF 15 and mocking it up as perfect bound book, I didn't feel too thrilled with the aesthetics, and after discussing with my collaborative partner Bethany Dalzell, I received feedback backing up my thoughts. It was also pointed out by Beth that even though I stated its a seamless timeline, whilst referencing using the index page and keeping track of the year can be difficult. To avoid this problem, I wanted to ensure I added the year for each image in some manner for extra clarity and structure for the reader. On top of this, I felt it would also enhance the layout.
Furthermore the cost of printing the coffee table book I had in mind was too expensive, I had to reconsider the printed publication before progressing further. 
I took the advice of Francis, at GRG Print and looked at Blurb Photo books; something I have actually used before for COP1. I was really happy with the final outcome and quality of the publication printed by Blurb in the past and decided to re-design the book using the Blurb In-Design plug in on InDesign. The quote for the the same book without foiling would cost me around £104.00. This is also a much cheaper option for printing multiple copies if needed. Even though I will not be able to foil the cover, I am going to re-design the cover, to make it aesthetically prominent and eye catching in a different way.
Back to the layout. Due to using Blurb, I have changed the format of the book slightly to 8x10 inches which meant this altered the overall look and placement of elements on each page. I re-worked the grid system to the new book format, and re-worked the imagery using the previous layout design and layout design ideas as reference and inspiration for this slight change.
The page number size was changed along with the typography on the foreword and introductory decade pages. Body copy complimenting imagery was now very small, and the point size was changed accordingly.
Overall I am much happier with the new layout which can be seen below. I feel it has a much more fashionable, minimal, clean, sleek and timeless aesthetic.

Thursday, 25 September 2014


The initial book cover design was used on version 15 of the PDFs featured in my previous blog post. I envisioned a hardback book, covered with coated black stock, with gold foil blocked type. Almost being a 'bible' of bodies. I wanted to reflect quality within the book as well as remaining smart, sleek, simple and stripped back in terms of aesthetics.

This idea can be seen on the sketch below showing the front, back and spine. This aesthetic chosen was influenced and inspired by the minimal, monochrome pieces of work selected and shown on a previous blog post regarding coffee-table books and layout design.

Before being set on an idea for the cover at this stage, I wanted to get an initial quote for this to be printed professionally as a one off copy. Knowing what I had in mind could be costly I wanted to get an accurate figure. 

I usually print publications with Hobs or Blurb however, due to the foil blocking this would need to be outsourced to a specialist printers. 

I reached out to a contact I have a GRG Print, Leeds, of whom I have worked with Francis before printing previous projects for clients. I phoned up and gave the specifics at the moment from the drafts which are listed below:

156 pages + cover
140-160gsm gloss stock
Hardback, Perfect bound
Foil blocked cover, spine and back
25cm (w) x 30xm (h)

Based on these specs, just the printing plates alone would cost in excess of £250 without VAT and the cost itself of the foiling.

In total the book, as a one off copy would be around £750.00 with the idea I have in mind without VAT. This would include all printing, binding and foiling. 

To make it an economical process, I would need to order a print run of between 500-700 copies. 

Due to this major problem in terms of monies, I will have to rethink the cover design and come up with an alternative or a way around it.

Francis at GRG Print recommended I used Blurb for monetary costs, however foiling wouldn't be achievable then. However this is the first idea I have considered for the cover and needs to, and will be worked on more. 

Tuesday, 23 September 2014


Based on the premise of designing a book acting almost as a timeline of the female figure, the research carried out and the information were collated and structured in order to transform magically into a beautiful coffee table book for leisurely reading. I began working on simplistic layouts keeping the imagery as a key focus, and began to digitise these. By keeping the imagery a key focus for the reader the figure and the changes shown and highlighted from year to year will be noticeable and apparent, as well as being the basis and the purpose of the book itself.

The developments of the practical design can be seen via the PDFs below. Each shows a progression to the next, including steps such as initial layout choices, imagery selection, font, body copy, fine details i.e. page numbers, contents page and index page, etc. I feel showing the saved drafts as I am working and designing is the best way to record aesthetic changes made.


To add further context and information to key periods of time and key imagery, additional body copy to the foreword will be placed alongside some carefully selected photographs.


To make designing the book easier for myself, I have structured both the forewords for each decade and the index page with are corresponding information in note form allowing for easier digitisation. This will allow for accurate information and ordering to enforced also.

In regards to the index page, this will feature page number, year, model/photographer and source, allowing easy location of any image or year when searching for a reference or a specific page/year, etc. 

Foreword Body Copy:

- - - -

Index Page Structure:


Below shows a short explanation as to why each image for each year was chosen for the practical element of the module. The timeline shown below highlights trends across the years of where more voluptuous figures were in fashion and then were the opposing size 0 fad comes into play.

This list gives an insight into the book itself and the image selection process.

1900 - Ideal Gibson Girl, showing the transitional period from Victorian times to modern fashion.
1901 - Illustration by Charles Dana Gibson, showing the synthesis of prevailing beauty ideals at the turn of the century.
1902 - Tiny waistlines with corsetry returning.
1903 - 1st time a relaxed waistline had been seen in decades.
1904 - Emphasised tight waist with a loose contrasting body causing a new body shape.
1905 - Very tight corsetry, highlighting very, very small waists.
1906 - Female tailoring allowed a perfect physique to be highlighted and 'worn' at all times.
1907 - Haberdashery and embellishments were beginning to be used to add shape, depth and contours to the body.
1908 - Petite, slim, small-waisted, ballerina figured adolescents.
1909 - Fuller figure, pear shape bodies boasting a more relaxed waistline. 
1910 - Floor length dresses hid bodies, whilst drapery added shape and movement. Early signs of the Flapper Girls.
1911 - Conservative tailoring with heavy layering. A much broader waistline was used within clothing.
1912 - Early Flapper Girls rejected traditional Victorian styles and corsetry.
1913 - Conservative, heavily layered with broad waistlines.
1914 - Men and Women pictured together for the first time in decades. Women boasted curvaceous, hourglass figures. 
1915 - Full figured women, dressed conservatively with heavy layering.
1916/17 - A-line full length skirts highlighted slim figures in a conservative manner.
1918 - Shorter hemlines adapted to those with a fuller figure.
1919 - Boy-figures were heavily in fashion.
1920/21 - Slim washboard figures were in fashion.
1922 - Slim women wore clothing cinching in waistlines highlighting curves.
1923 - Being curvaceous was in.
1924/25/26/27 - Slim Flapper Girls wore clothes highlighting their slim bodies and thin, long legs.
1928/29 - Loose fitting clothing echoed a slim, straight figure.
1930 - Slim, athletic, dancer builds were in fashion.
1931 - Slim, straight figures were in fashion.
1932 - The first ever photographic Vogue cover featuring the Swimwear trend.
1933 - Slim figure and small waist emphasised by clothing choices.
1934/35 - Slim, athletic builds.
1936 - Early glamour and curves highlighted by clothing.
1937 - Slim, athletic, petite.
1938 - Curvaceous figures began to come back into fashion.
1939 - Sporty, muscular and toned figures were in fashion.
1940/41 - Slim figure with broad shoulders and tiny waistlines.
1942 - Curvaceous clothing mannequins compared to present day.
1943/44/45 - Curvy figures highlighted by 2-piece swimwear. Pear shape bodies with increased confidence.
1946/47 - Curvy and sexualised.
1948 - A more conservative trend took over in regards to fashion and body image.
1949/50 - Curvaceous, natural looking figures were in-fashion.
1951/52/53 - Full-bodied, curvy and tones bodies.
1954/55 - Large breasted, curvy women were viewed as sex objects.
1956 - Small waists and breasts with curvy bums.
1957/58/59 - Slim, athletic builds with smaller breasts.
1960/61 - Slim figures with small waistlines and small breasts.
1962 - Curvy, full-figured bodies with large breasts.
1963 - Slim, muscular and athletic physiques were in-fashion.
1964/65/66/67/68/69 - Overly sexualised women with slim, waif like figures.
1970/71 - Super skinny and petite.
1972/3 - Slightly curvy, athletic and broad shoulders in combination were back in fashion.
1974 - Straight, slim figures.
1975 - Slim bodies with emphasised broad shoulders remained in fashion.
1976/77 - Athletic, toned, slim and sporty figures were in fashion.
1978/79 - Sexualised women with curvy bodies and large breasts.
1980 - Curvy was back in fashion.
1981 - A view of a natural beauty and figure when pregnant. A first in fashion photography.
1982/83 - Slim, sporty, athletic figures were in. 
1984/85 - Very skinny and toned figures were in fashion, and made 'slim' look curvy.
1986/87 - Toned, skinny and athletic builds remained popular ideals.
1988/89 - Toned, curvy bodies with larger breasts.
1990 - Toned and athletic builds were seen as ideal.
1991 - Natural, curvy physiques yet remained toned.
1992 - Athletic, toned and slim with curves.
1993 - Waif thin, toned figures were in back promoting a skinny figure.
1994/95/96 - Slim and toned bodies remained on trend.
1997 - Sporty figures returned.
1998/99 - Slim, toned and sporty figures were in demand with the desire to be toned and muscular.
2000  - Slim, toned, youthful and athletic.
2001 - Slim, muscular, sporty, toned, straight boy-like figures were heavily on trend and seen as the perfect ideal.
2002 - Skinny, toned and muscular.
2003 - Skinny, toned, androgynous, boy-like.
2004 - Slim and athletic with curves.
2005 - Skinny, boy-like,  athletic, sporty and toned bodies remained ideal to most.
2006/07 - Very slight figures with tiny highlights of curves.
2008/09/10 - Size 0 came into trend, with almost anorexic-looking, unhealthy physiques being an aspiration.
2011 - Skinny and toned bodies remained popular and highlighted across the media.
2012/13 - Super skinny, size 0 returns with models promoting invisible breasts and child like frames.
2014 - Skinny, toned and athletic frames remain the ideal for many.

Thursday, 18 September 2014


From researching imagery in magazines, books, coffee table books such as Vogue Covers, and researching coffee table books, and photo books online, I began developing initial layout designs for the practical element. 

I wanted to achieve a minimal, simplistic and engaging layout which gives the reader enough information to have the imagery as key focus points, opposed to being a magazine-style publication with reams and columns of body copy. 

Keeping the book consistent throughout I imagine the book would use the same layout templates throughout. Ideally I would like to have 6, 7 or 8 solid layout designs which are implemented throughout the book to do so. This would add to the overall aesthetic allowing the book to flow as one like a timeline, rather than being slightly fragmented. 

Whilst using books from my reading lists and magazines as inspiration, I didn't want the book layout to look like a magazine, and therefore wanted to be careful with so. 

Below shows a page from Graphic Design for Fashion which has some descriptive body copy on the bottom right hand side of the image shown. This is an aesthetic value which has been placed on the initial layout ideas for descriptives of the images throughout the book. This is shown below. 

Graphic Design for Fashion:

Initially I feel that the layout due to be photo heavy, needs thought in regards to grid and image placement. For this reason I took the ultimate layout book out of the library to gain inspiration from Muller-Brockmann. 

Grid Systems, by Josef Muller-Brockmann: 

A series of different type/image/type and image based layouts.

Below shows spreads from another layout book called 'editorial design'. This book focuses on case studies from both fashion based digital and print design. I feel this book will be really helpful with the layout design initially, to help me get going, as well as being really beneficial for my other fashion related briefs for the Extended Practice module.

Editorial Design - Digital and Print:

Friday, 12 September 2014


A video found whilst researching into the evolution and changes of the female body image. The video has been cleverly made using illustrations and stop motion and portrays changes of the female body, both past and present.

Saturday, 6 September 2014


A series of images taken from the Vogue archives collection in the college library from years 1950/60/70.